The classification name for neanderthals, Homo neanderthalensis, suggests that they are an entirely different species from our own, Homo sapiens. What differentiates species is their ability to breed successfully. If they can produce fertile offspring, then they are the same species. Neanderthals did in fact successfully breed with humans several thousand years ago, and the evidence is in our DNA today. Ask any geneticist and they will tell you that they are the same species. Ask any anthropologist, and they will tell you that they are a different species by virtue of their taxonomic name. There are whole books written about this debate, but the decision is really up to you and what you believe.

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